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best cover letter for canada visitor visa - Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. A model is presented here for writing systematic reviews of argument-based literature: literature that uses arguments to address conceptual questions, such as whether abortion is morally Cited by: present our model for writing systematic reviews of reasons, which we have structured according to the four steps in box 1, but differs from models for writing systematic reviews in epidemiology or social science literatureWhile we illustrate it using our first systematic review of reasons,8 it applies to all argument-based by: Jan 05,  · Validation of prediction models is highly recommended and increasingly common in the literature. A systematic review of validation studies is therefore helpful, with meta-analysis needed to summarise the predictive performance of the model being validated across different settings and populations. This article provides guidance for researchers systematically reviewing and meta Cited by: thesis writing services gastby essay

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aqa biology past papers a level - Jul 20,  · Updating of systematic reviews is generally more efficient than starting all over again when new evidence emerges, but to date there has been no clear guidance on how to do this. This guidance helps authors of systematic reviews, commissioners, and editors decide when to update a systematic review, and then how to go about updating the by: This review covers the basic principles of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The problems associated with traditional narrative reviews are discussed, as is the role of systematic reviews in limiting bias associated with the assembly, critical appraisal, and synthesis of studies addressing specific clinical questions. Important issues that need to be considered when appraising a systematic Cited by: 2. ARTICLE TYPES AT THE BMJ At The BMJ, we offer the opportunity to submit a range of article types, each with different requirements. Before sub - mitting any work to The BMJ, we encourage all authors to explore our advice on these article types to ensure that work is framed in the best possible way for review and publication. write popular critical thinking online

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basketball homework - The steps necessary to perform a systematic review are fully explained, including the study purpose, search methodology, data extraction, reporting of results, identification of bias, and reporting of the study's main findings. Conclusion: Systematic reviews or meta-analyses critically appraise and formally synthesize the best existing evidence. Mar 29,  · Background. A systematic review, as its name suggests, is a systematic way of collecting, evaluating, integrating, and presenting findings from several studies on a specific question or topic.[] A systematic review is a research that, by identifying and combining evidence, is tailored to and answers the research question, based on an assessment of all relevant studies.[2,3] To identify Author: Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi, Elaheh Mazaheri, Hanan A Ibrahim, Sahar Dalvand, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh. This article provides a step-by-step approach to conducting and reporting systematic literature reviews (SLRs) in the domain of healthcare design and discusses some of the key quality issues associated with SLRs. SLR, as the name implies, is a systematic way of collecting, critically evaluating, int . breakfast essay contest it thesis forums

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world history homework answers - These are general formatting guidelines across BMJ, please always refer to journal-specific instructions for authors for article type specifications. You can browse the titles on our Journals website. If you are looking to submit to The BMJ, please visit this section.. If you are unable to find the answer to your question, our editorial team will be on hand to offer assistance throughout the. Appraising systematic reviews. Systematic reviews may, or may not, include a meta-analysis of the primary RCTs identified. Although systematic reviews of RCTs with meta-analysis are often said to provide the most compelling evidence of effectiveness and causality, not all systematic reviews are of the highest methodological quality. The PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) checklist contains 17 items considered to be the essential and minimum components of systematic review or meta-analysis protocol. BMJ does not currently recommend the use of the INPLASY registry for systematic reviews due to a lack of transparency. tense of an essay

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reasons to transfer colleges essay - Introduction Unscheduled hospital admissions are an increasing burden on health systems worldwide. To date, initiatives to reduce admissions have had limited success as it is unclear which strategies effectively reduce admissions and are supported by a strong evidence-base. Therefore, we will conduct an overview to find, assess and summarise all published peer-reviewed systematic reviews of Cited by: 9. Jan 16,  · In systematic reviews that lack data amenable to meta-analysis, alternative synthesis methods are commonly used, but these methods are rarely reported. This lack of transparency in the methods can cast doubt on the validity of the review findings. The Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) guideline has been developed to guide clear reporting in reviews of interventions in which Cited by: Objectives We systematically analysed recommendations from gout guidelines as an example, to provide a basis for developing a reporting standard of recommendations in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Design Systematic review without meta-analysis. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE and all relevant guideline websites (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Cited by: 4. asu anthropological research papers

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best article writing service - Sep 13,  · #### Summary points A systematic review is an overview of primary studies that used explicit and reproducible methods A meta-analysis is a mathematical synthesis of the results of two or more primary studies that addressed the same hypothesis in the same way Although meta-analysis can increase the precision of a result, it is important to Cited by: American Medical Association (JAMA), British medical journal (BMJ) and the Lancet.2 These journals provide guidelines on how to write systematic reviews. There are online resources that promote quality, transparency and standardization on methods of conducting and publishing systematic reviews e.g. The Cochrane review of. Objective Evidence syntheses such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses provide a rigorous and transparent knowledge base for translating clinical research into decisions, and thus they represent the basic unit of knowledge in medicine. Umbrella reviews are reviews of previously published systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Therefore, they represent one of the highest levels of evidence Cited by:

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writing essays services - It is paramount to recognise that a systematic review and meta-analysis of case reports/series should not be placed at the top of the hierarchy in a pyramid that depicts validity The certainty of evidence derived from a meta-analysis is contingent on the design of included studies, their risk of bias, as well as other factors such as Cited by: Steps in Writing a Systematic Review Research Question. The first step in performing a systematic review is to formulate a primary research question as part of the research protocol. 50 The goal of developing a research protocol is to allow formulation of the questions and methods of the review before retrieving the literature. This helps. A high-quality systematic review is described as the most reliable source of evidence to guide clinical practice. The purpose of a systematic review is to deliver a meticulous summary of all the available primary research in response to a research question. A systematic review uses all the existing research and is sometime called ‘secondary research’ (research on research).Cited by: easy persuasive essay topic

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aqa biology past papers a level - Aug 24,  · RevMan (Cochrane Review Manager) - This is a professional level software application that can be used to prepare systematic reviews. It is recommended that you review the tutorial to see if the level of training needed to use the system is beyond your time Joel Glogowski. Dec 17,  · Before you begin the review or you are at the protocol stage, you should be sure of your team members and how they are going to contribute to it. Divide the work initially for smooth and hassle-free completion of the review. E.g., Author 1 and 2 will screen and extract the data. Author 3 will conduct the meta-analysis or risk of bias; Author 4 Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. Systematic reviews can address this problem and are a good way of taming the evidence.3 A systematic review is a ‘review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and critically appraise relevant research and to collect and analyse data from studies that are included in the review’.4Cited by: do my computer science homework

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essay writing on news papers - a systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the included studies. 3 The fi rst step in a systematic review is a meticulous search of all sources of evidence for relevant studies. The databases and citation indexes searched are listed in the methodology section of the review Cited by: A systematic review is a robust process that critically analyses previous literature through explicit methodology, minimizing biases and enabling the synthesis and generation of comprehensive Estimated Reading Time: 3 mins. Sep 05,  · This is the first systematic review of the literature that has considered the evidence on Boards’ and managers’ time spent, engagement and work within the context of quality and safety. This review adds to the widely anecdotal and commentary pieces that speculate on what managers should be doing by presenting what they are actually doing. can you write on the ipad pro

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english essay the youth of today - Objectives To summarise logistical aspects of recently completed systematic reviews that were registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registry to quantify the time and resources required to complete such projects. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources and study selection All of the registered and completed reviews (status from the PROSPERO Cited by: The British Journal of Sports Medicine (BJSM) aims to highlight clinically-relevant original research, editorials, systematic reviews, consensus statements and commentary that will be of interest to the field of sport and exercise medicine. The journal is aimed at physicians, physiotherapists, exercise scientists and those involved in public city-kita-tokyo-jp.somee.comted Reading Time: 12 mins. How to Write a Systematic Review: A Narrative Review In recent years, published systematic reviews in the world and in Iran have been increasing. These studies are an important resource to answer evidence‑based clinical questions and assist health policy‑makers and students who want to identify evidence gaps in published Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi, Elaheh Mazaheri, Hanan A Ibrahim, Sahar Dalvand, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh. evaluation coursework

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how to write a higher english critical essay conclusion - Oct 01,  · How to write an introduction and methods of a systematic review of literature. October Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 64 (10) Estimated Reading Time: 4 mins. Clinical decisions should be based on the totality of the best evidence and not the results of individual studies. When clinicians apply the results of a systematic review or meta-analysis to patient care, they should start by evaluating the credibility of the methods of the systematic review, ie, the extent to which these methods have likely protected against misleading by: Clarifying the key elements of the question is a critical first step towards providing an answer to inform a decision, and for a researcher to frame the research to be done. The PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcomes) model [1] captures the key elements and is a good strategy to provide answerable questions. resume it analyst programmer


apa format for citing a book with two authors - Objectives To systematically review the quality of reporting of pilot and feasibility of cluster randomised trials (CRTs). In particular, to assess (1) the number of pilot CRTs conducted between 1 January and 31 December , (2) whether objectives and methods are appropriate and (3) reporting quality. Methods We searched PubMed (–) for CRTs with ‘pilot’ or ‘feasibility Cited by: 2 Writing a Systematic Literature Review: Resources for Students and Trainees Some key resources are highlighted in the next few pages – researchers around the world have found these useful – it’s worth a look and it might save you a lot of time! PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA statement File Size: KB. Sep 24,  · Background All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) require a protocol; however, numerous studies have highlighted protocol deficiencies. Reporting guidelines may improve the content of research reports and, if developed using robust methods, may increase the utility of reports to stakeholders. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and review RCT protocol guidelines, to Cited by: title for my essay

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short story in an essay - the meta-analysis or systematic review had considered and analysed them separately. Similarly, it may be important not to split categories into subgroups (eg, childhood sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse) if the meta-analysis or systematic review had considered them as a whole (eg, childhood trauma). Restricting the analyses to. Objective To determine, for people seeking a date online, what activities and behaviours have an effect on the chances of converting electronic communication into a face-to-face meeting. Methods Literature in psychology, sociology, and computer, behavioural and neurocognitive sciences that informed effective online dating was captured through electronic searching of Psychinfo, Medline and Cited by: 7. This systematic review offers an overview of previous concussion definitions and on the role of biomechanical studies in this context. These were specific review questions given to this writing group by the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG). It aims at providing an updated operational definition ofCited by: independence day essay for kids in hindi

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science thesis topics - Many health professionals, students and academics including health researchers will have grappled with the challenges of undertaking a review of the literature and choosing a suitable design or framework to structure the review. For many undergraduate and master’s healthcare students their final year dissertation involves undertaking a review of the literature as a way of assessing their Cited by: Quality improvement (QI) methods have been introduced to healthcare to support the delivery of care that is safe, timely, effective, efficient, equitable and cost effective. Of the many QI tools and methods, the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle is one of the few that focuses on the crux of change, the translation of ideas and intentions into action. Evidence-Based Nursing systematically searches a wide range of international healthcare journals applying strict criteria for the validity of research and relevance to best nursing practice. Content is critically appraised and the most relevant articles are summarised into succinct expert commentaries, focusing on the papers’ key findings and implications for nursing city-kita-tokyo-jp.somee.coml Archives: Portico, LOCKSS. tense of an essay

Systematic Reviews volume 1Article number: 43 Cite this article. Metrics details. All randomized clinical trials RCTs require a protocol; however, numerous studies have highlighted protocol deficiencies. Reporting guidelines may improve the content of research reports and, if developed using robust methods, may increase the how to write a systematic review bmj of reports to stakeholders. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and review RCT protocol guidelines, to assess their characteristics and methods of development, and to compare recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of indexed literature MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Methodology Register from inception to September ; reference lists; related article features; forward citation searching and a targeted search of supplementary sources, including a survey of major trial funding agencies in six countries.

Records were eligible if they described a content guideline in English how to write a systematic review bmj Research paper on drug abuse relevant to RCT protocols. Guidelines were excluded if they specified content for protocols for trials of how to write a systematic review bmj procedures or conditions or were intended to assess trial quality.

We extracted guideline characteristics and methods. Content was mapped for a subset of guidelines that described development methods or had institutional endorsement. Forty guidelines published in journals, creative writing and the unconscious and institutional english essay the youth of today were included in the review; seven were specific to RCT protocols.

No guideline described formal consensus methods or a systematic retrieval of empirical evidence to inform its development. Existing guidelines for RCT protocol content varied substantially in their recommendations. Few reports described the methods of guideline development, limiting comparisons of guideline validity. Given the importance of protocols to diverse stakeholders, we believe a systematically developed, evidence-informed guideline for clinical trial protocols is needed. Peer Review reports. Transparent and clearly written protocols are important to guide trial conduct.

They enable thorough assessment of adherence to scientific and ethical standards prior to trial inception how to write a systematic review bmj 1 — 6 ] and monitoring of changes made throughout a trial that could how to write a systematic review bmj interim or final trial results [ 5 ]. Some journals now require the submission of protocols with trial manuscripts, which are then included in the peer review process [ 7 — 10 ]. Unfortunately, a high proportion of trial protocols do not adequately describe important methodological details, decreasing their utility for trial implementation and critical appraisal of trials.

For example, protocols often fail to designate primary outcomes free proofreading 11 ] or detail allocation concealment [ 12 ], sample size calculations [ 13 ] and sponsor and investigator roles in trial conduct [ 14 ], all of which have been associated with biased trial results and conclusions. Additionally, comparisons of trial protocols with how to write a systematic review bmj journal publications have consistently shown thesis preface sample, unacknowledged discrepancies, including discrepancies in primary outcomes [ 5 ] and statistical methods [ 1315 ].

With recent calls for greater access to trial protocols [ 1617 ] and trial registration [ 18 ], the cover letter for newsreporter of trial protocols is receiving increased attention. Reporting guidelines have been developed to improve the transparency of other research documents such as reports of research findings for journal publication [ 19 — 26 ]. However, development methods of reporting guidelines vary, how to write a systematic review bmj impacting their how to write a systematic review bmj to various stakeholders [ 20 ].

Some groups advocate that reporting guidelines should be developed using rigorous, systematic and transparent methodology and recommendations for reporting guideline development have recently been proposed [ 31 ]. Guidelines for clinical trial protocol content are available from varied sources, such as textbooks, funding applications and institutional guidelines. However, to our knowledge, their characteristics and methods of development have not been reviewed. In how to write a systematic review bmj paper we report a systematic review with the following objectives: pay someone to take online class to identify reporting guidelines relevant to RCT protocols; 2 to examine their characteristics and development methods; and 3 to review their content.

The systematic review protocol was developed with input from trial and systematic review methodologists See Appendix A in Additional file 1. Documents describing only common or typical how to write a systematic review bmj content how to write a systematic review bmj recommending content were excluded; when intent was unclear, the report was included. Tools were excluded if they recommended content specific to a narrow health care research area for example, disease stage based on a specific classification system as we a list of transition words for essays to focus on guidelines that could be generalized to other research topics; to guide specific protocol aspects such as quality of life starbucks essay papers or to assess clinical trial quality.

For practical reasons, guidelines were limited to those available in English or French. Both published and unpublished guidelines were eligible. Relevant guidelines were identified via two methods: 1 systematic review of indexed literature and 2 targeted search of major RCT funding agencies. An information specialist How to write a systematic review bmj developed the search strategies. A sample of books was also how to write a systematic review bmj and were identified based on book title through reference lists and via searches on Amazon. We reviewed a sample of guidelines from major clinical trial funding agencies as we expected some key guidelines would not be readily identifiable through electronic database searching.

Informants provided up to two nominations from each of the following sectors within their will writing service kent major public for example, governmentalnon-governmental, non-profit for example, charitableand for-profit for example, pharmaceutical industry clinical trial funding organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts by potentially relevant full text articles using pre-defined eligibility criteria and pilot-tested how to write a systematic review bmj. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or by the involvement of a third reviewer.

The remaining characteristics were then extracted by one reviewer, with key data methods, search for evidence and number of guideline items extracted in duplicate independently by a second reviewer. Where multiple reports of a guide or associated website were identified that is, companion reportsall known associated sources were consulted and the most updated or complete version was treated how to write a systematic review bmj the primary source.

We itemized guideline content esl personal essay proofreading website au compare recommendations across guidelines. This analysis was limited to evidence-informed guidelines, those with explicitly described methodology and those with either explicit or probable endorsement of the guideline by a recognized institution or organization. To aid in this comparison, we referred to the version PR spreadsheet of elements V2. Guideline content was mapped, where possible, to one of concepts included in this model. Where no suitable concept existed or where the concept had a different level of granularity than the CDISC concepts, a new category was created.

Content mapping was conducted by one reviewer JT and verified in how to write a systematic review bmj by a second reviewer JK. Data were summarized using descriptive measures. The following pre-specified sub-groups how to write a systematic review bmj compared descriptively: guidelines limited to RCTs versus those with a broader scope; guidelines with versus those without explicit development methods or cited evidence; and guidelines with versus those without described funding sources. How to write a systematic review bmj to the nature of the review, no formal reporting bias assessments were conducted. Electronic searches yielded a total of 5, records Figure 1and 76 records were identified from other methods.

Ten guidelines were identified from nominated funding agencies or their websites, eight of which were relevant; nine agencies confirmed no relevant guideline and no response was received and no guideline located for seven agencies see Appendix C in Additional file 1 for list how to write a systematic review bmj agencies. After screening titles and abstracts, full-text pay someone to write my grad school essays were reviewed and 46 were included in this review.

Six guidelines were presented in two separate reports [ 37 — paper writing service ], leaving 40 unique how to write a systematic review bmj for data extraction [ 384042444648 — 82 ] Table how to write a systematic review bmj. We present the general characteristics of the how to write a systematic review bmj in Table 2. Fifteen guidelines were disseminated via websites dissertation process research specific to the tool or independent sites with links to view cathedral by raymond carver thesis statement guidelineand five how to write a systematic review bmj described conference or lecture presentations [ 49 education essay conclusion, 515962composition of essay ].

In Table 3we report aggregate results of guideline development methodology; details for each guideline are included in Appendix D in Additional file 1. How to write a systematic review bmj report stated all of these methods. Two reports included a prospective request for public feedback after llm thesis abstract [ 5556 ] and one stated future plans for formal tool validation [ 59 ].

No report indicated the use of a formal consensus process for example, Delphi consensus, Nominal Group Technique for guideline development. Additionally, no report described a systematic search for marketing topics for master thesis guidelines or empirical evidence to inform guideline content. One reported searching personal files [ 59 ] for previous guidelines and another reported a non-systematic search of the How to write a systematic review bmj and reference lists, and contacting experts to identify previous guidelines and evidence [ 46 ]. Independence day essay for kids in hindi reports cited empirical evidence for some of the essays on drug abuse by teenagers [ 535871 ] without describing methods for identifying this evidence.

We extracted content from a subset of 23 guidelines. The recommended content varied substantially between the guidelines Table 4. We present the most commonly recommended concepts in Table 4. Few differences were noted between pre-specified subgroups by scope, development methods, and funding source. The number of guidelines in professional writing services houston subgroup was small, thus limiting the ability to make definitive conclusions. In Table 5 we present the most notable differences between the subgroups.

Our review identified numerous guidelines aiming to inform the content of clinical trial protocols. However, recommended concepts varied substantially across guidelines how to write a systematic review bmj the vast majority of guidelines did not describe their methods of development. When described, most included informal methods with limited stakeholder involvement and limited use of evidence to inform their recommendations.

Similar findings have been reported elsewhere [ 20, ][ 83 how to write a systematic review bmj. Very few concepts were recommended consistently across guidelines, including several whose importance is supported by empirical evidence. For example, only half of the more recent guidelines [ 59707174758081 ] included an item recommending that primary outcomes be stated, despite preceding research showing biased modifications how to write a systematic review bmj primary outcomes throughout trials [ 3511 ]. Similarly, only three [ 66671 ] explicitly requested information regarding allocation concealment, the absence of which has been associated with inflated trial how to write a systematic review bmj sizes [ 84 — 86 ], although many requested general allocation methods.

Conflicts of interest and roles of the sponsor in the trial were explicitly recommended in tips for writing thesis discussion one guideline [ 81 how to write a systematic review bmj, despite being required by the Declaration of Helsinki [ 87 ] and despite research showing that trials with financial competing interests report positive results more often than other how to write a systematic review bmj [ 68889 ].

Only three [ 717581 ] how to write a systematic review bmj explicitly recommended including or citing a systematic review as part of the trial rationale despite the problems associated with non-systematic literature searches how to write an good essay for exam 9091 ]. Finally, only 4 [ 46717281 ] of 15 how to write a systematic review bmj published after the introduction of trial registration requirements in [ 18 ] specifically requested registration information.

No guideline recommended all of these important concepts. The reasons for the variation and omissions are unclear. Few of the guideline reports in our sample described their development methods, preventing assessment of the validity of the recommendations. If not properly developed, guidelines could potentially ultimately be preparing a business plan limited use and may not improve the reporting of elements that are important to key users of protocols. Of the eight guidelines that did detail methodology, four seem relatively comprehensive [ 42465970 ]. Although these four shared many common elements, considerable variation in recommended content was also present.

For a guideline to be widely acceptable, we believe it should be developed using robust methodology that engages key stakeholders during development and is guided by empirical evidence, where possible. In addition, the methodology should be clearly reported and accessible to enable essays on drug abuse by teenagers of the process feature article assessment of essay writing about camel validity. Recommendations for reporting guideline development have recently been proposed [ 31 ] and include a series of steps akin to how to write a systematic review bmj recommended for clinical practice guideline development [ 92 ]: involvement of multidisciplinary expert panel for a formal consensus process for example, Delphi consensus and consensus meeting sliterature reviews to identify key evidence, pilot testing, active dissemination and impact evaluation.

Recent research conducted by how to write a systematic review bmj EQUATOR group on the development of health care reporting guidelines [ 2083 ] suggests that such essay heop essay heop methods are rarely employed. This is congruent with our current findings. This review has some limitations. Although comprehensive in searching indexed periodicals, our review was not exhaustive in the search for institutional guidelines or books. However, our main findings would not likely substantively change with the inclusion of guidelines from these sources, as most guidelines available outside of journal articles did not describe development methods.

Our results are also based on the methodology stated in included reports; we did not how to write a systematic review bmj authors for additional information. Finally, the process of mapping and comparing concepts across cheap university essay ghostwriting for hire for masters was challenging due to the varied terminology used and the many sub-concepts of general headings that were recommended.

To decrease bias we employed a systematic method and a second reviewer verified the process. Our systematic review highlights some potential limitations of existing clinical trial protocol content guidelines.

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